Versions, physics models and architecture of the code
There are two versions of the SHIELD code. The common version, SHIELD, is dedicated to simulation of interaction of hadrons and arbitrary atomic nuclei with complex extended targets in energy range up to 1 TeV/A. The "medical" version, SHIELD-HIT (Heavy Ion Therapy), is designed for precision simulation of interaction of therapeutic beams of protons and ions with biological tissue.
Models of nuclear reactions which describe various stages of the inelastic hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interaction are identical in both versions. These models are developed at JINR (Dubna) and INR RAS (Moscow). The models are grouped together in the MSDM-generator (Multi Stage Dynamical Model) which allows to simulate a whole nuclear reaction in the exclusive approach.
Neutron transport below 14.5 MeV in both versions of SHIELD is simulated using the 28 group neutron data system ABBN .
Ionization losses of charged hadrons and nuclear fragments in the common version, SHIELD, are calculated according to the standard Bethe-Bloch equation or using the ATIMA code. The "medical" version SHIELD-HIT includes various models and data for computation of mean ionization loss, fluctuations of the ionization loss and of the multiple Coulomb scattering.
- L.P.Abagyan, N.O.Bazazyants, M.N.Nikolaev, A.M.Tsibulya. Group Constants for Reactor and Shielding Calculations. Energoizdat, Moscow, 1981 (in Russian).