Introduction and History
The SHIELD hadron transport code is designed for Monte Carlo simulation of interaction of hadrons and atomic nuclei with complex extended targets. SHIELD is employed in the same field of problems as known codes Geant4, Fluka, MCNPX, PHITS,
as well as the inclusive-exclusive code MARS.
The initial hadron version of SHIELD have been elaborated at JINR (Dubna) in 1967-72 [1-3]. It allowed to simulate interaction of nucleons and pions with a matter in energy range up to 30 GeV. The name "SHIELD" is the work name of the initial version, which has been pasted to the code during its lifetime.
Further development of the code was continued at the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INR RAS, Moscow). In 1989-90 the hadron version of SHIELD have been completely rewritten incorparating the accumulated experience, the wider problem field and the progress of models of nuclear reactions. It became possible to simulate transport of nucleons, antinucleons, pions and kaons up to 1 TeV [4,5].
In 1997 the transport of atomic nuclei with arbitrary (A,Z) have been implemented in the SHIELD code [6-9]. This enhancement has allowed to use the code, in particular, in the tasks concerning the development of heavy ions accelerators [10-12].
Starting from 2001 the "medical" version SHIELD-HIT (Heavy Ion Therapy) is in progress [13-15]. It is dedicated to precision simulation of interaction of therapeutic beams with biological tissue and tissue like materials.
The SHIELD code includes known Russian models of nuclear reactions, developed at JINR and INR RAS. These models describe all stages of the inelastic nuclear interaction in the exclusive approach.
The hadron version of SHIELD is contained in the program library of the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC ORNL) under index ÑÑÑ-667.
Development of the SHIELD code is continued. The code is in use in various areas of pure and applied nuclear physics.
- N.M.Sobolevsky. The Code for Monte Carlo Simulation of the Nucleon-Meson Cascade in a Matter. JINR, B1 2 5458, Dubna, 1970 (in Russian).
- V.S.Barashenkov, N.M.Sobolevsky, V.D.Toneev. Interaction of High-Energy Radiation with Matter. Atomnaya Energiya 32 (1972) 123 (in Russian).
- V.S.Barashenkov, N.M.Sobolevsky, V.D.Toneev. Passing of High-Energy Particle Beams through Thick Layers of Matter. Atomnaya Energiya 32 (1972) 217 (in Russian).
- N.M.Sobolevsky. SHIELD/CG - the Code for Simulation of Hadron Interactions with Complex Media. Nuclear Transmutation of Nuclear Power Long-Lived Radioactive Waste. Workshop Abstracts, Obninsk, July 1-5, 1991, p. 48.
- A.V.Dementyev, N.M.Sobolevsky. SHIELD - a Monte Carlo Hadron Transport Code. Proc. of a Specialists' Meeting "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data: Models and Codes", Issy les Moulineaux (France), 30 May-1 June 1994. Paris, OECD, 1994, p. 237. Preprint INR RAS 0874/94, Moscow, 1994.
- A.V.Dementyev, N.M.Sobolevsky. SHIELD - Universal Monte Carlo Hadron Transport Code: Scope and Applications. Space Radiation Environment Modeling: New Phenomena and Approaches, October 7-9, 1997. Workshop Abstracts, MSU, Moscow, 1997, p. 4.4.
- N.M.Sobolevsky, A.P.Zhukov. Some Non-Typical Tasks of Hadron Transport with the SHIELD Transport Code. Proc. of Fourth Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments (SARE 4), Knoxville (TN), USA, September 14-16, 1998. ORNL, 1999, Ed. by T.A.Gabriel, p. 283.
- A.V.Dementyev, N.M.Sobolevsky. SHIELD - Universal Monte Carlo Hadron Transport Code: Scope and Applications. Radiation Measurements, 30 (1999) 553.
- N.M.Sobolevsky. The SHIELD Transport Code: a Tool for Computer Study of Interaction of Particles and Nuclei with Complex Media. Proc. of the 3rd Yugoslav Nuclear Society International Conference YUNSC 2000, Belgrade, October 2-5, 2000. The VINCA Institute, Belgrade, 2001, p. 539-564.
- E.Mustafin, G.Moritz, G.Walter, L.Latycheva, N.Sobolevskiy. Radiation Damage to the Elements of the Nuclotron-Type Dipole of SIS100. Proceedings of EPAC 2004, Lucerne, Switzerland, 5 9 July 2004, pp. 1408-1410.
- A.A.Golubev, A.V.Kantsyrev, V.E.Luckjashin, A.Fertman, A.V.Kunin, V.V.Vatulin, A.S.Gnutov, Y.V.Panova, H.Iwase, E.Mustafin, D.Schardt, K.Weyrich, N.M.Sobolevskiy, L.N.Latysheva. Measurement of the Energy Deposition Profile for 238U Ions with Specific Energy 500 and 950 MeV/u in Stainless Steel and Copper Targets. Nucl.Instr.Meth. B263(2007)339-344.
- A.Fertman, E.Mustafin, R.Hinca, I.Strasik, M.Pavlovic, D.Schardt, N.Sobolevskiy, A.Golubev, B.Sharkov, G.Fehrenbacher, I.Hofmann, H.Iwase, E.Kozlova, G.Mustafina. First results of an experimental study of the residual activity induced by high energy uranium ions in steel and copper. Nucl.Instr.Meth. B260(2007)579-591.
- I.Gudowska, N.Sobolevsky, P.Andreo, Dz.Belkic, A.Brahme. Ion Beam Transport in Tissue-Like Media Using the Monte Carlo Code SHIELD-HIT. Phys.Med.Biol. 49 (2004) 1933-1958.
- O.Geithner, P.Andreo, N.Sobolevsky, G.Hartmann, O.Jaekel. Calculation of Stopping Power Ratios for Carbon Ion Dosimetry. Phys.Med.Biol. 51 (2006) 2279-2292.
- I.Gudowska, J.Kempe, N.Sobolevsky. Low- and High LET Dose Components in Carbon Beam. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 122 (2006) 483-484, doi:10.1093/rpd/ncl472.