When using materials from the Web-page the reference to is obligatory.


Over years of its life-time and development the SHIELD transport code was used for calculations in various areas of nuclear physics. The references presented below provide an insight into the applications of the SHIELD code.

Spallation process in heavy targets under irradiation by proton and ion beams. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).

  1. A.S.Botvina, N.V.Kolmychkov, L.N.Latysheva, N.M.Sobolevsky. Calculation of Energy Deposition and Neutron Yield in Target and Beam Stop of Meson Facility. Program of experimental studies at the Meson Facility of INR AS SSSR. Proc. of 3rd All-Union seminar, Zvenigorod, April 23-26, 1983, p.347 (in Russian).
  2. N.V.Kolmychkov, V.D.Laptev, V.A.Matveev et al. Superintensive Pulse Slow Neutron Source SIN Based on Kaon Factory. Proc. of 11th Meeting of International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources ICANS-XI, KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, October 22-26, 1990. KEK Report 90-25, 1991, Vol. 1, p. 628.
  3. A.V.Dementyev, N.M.Sobolevsky, Yu.Ya.Stavissky. Neutron Yield from Extended Lead Target under Incident Protons of 0.1 to 100 GeV. Nucl. Instr. Meth. A374 (1996) 70.
  4. S.F.Sidorkin, A.V.Dementyev, V.G.Miroshnichenko et al. Pulsed Neutron Source on the Basis of a Uranium Target at the Moscow Meson Factory. Nucl.Instr.Meth. A370 (1996) 467.
  5. A.V.Dementyev, S.G.Lebedev, O.N.Smirnova, N.M.Sobolevsky, Yu.Ya.Stavissky. Computation Methods for Neutron, Heat and Radiation Damage Properties of Pulsed Neutron Sources. Proc. of 13th Meeting of International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources ICANS-XIII, October 11-14, 1995, PSI, Villigen, Switzerland, p.431.
  6. V.G.Semenov, N.M.Sobolevsky. Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam. Proc. of Second International Conference on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies and Applications, 3-7 June 1996, Kalmar, Sweden, Ed. H.Conde, Uppsala University. vol 1, p.353
  7. N.M.Sobolevsky. Conclusions of International Code Comparison for Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data. Thick Target Benchmark for Lead and Tungsten. Report NEA OECD NSC/DOC(96)15, Paris, 1996.
  8. M.Pesic, N.Sobolevsky. ADS with HEU in the Vinca Institute. Proc. of the 10th International Conference on EMERGING NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS, Petten, The Netherlands, September 24-28, 2000, pp. 420 428. ISBN 90 805906 2 2, NUGI 028.
  9. A.V.Voronkov, E.V.Efremov, E.V.Zemskov et al. Calculated Analysis of the Fields of Heat Production in Targets, Irradiated by the Beam of Relativistic Protons. Preprint No.75 of the M.V.Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian).
  10. A.V.Voronkov, N.M.Sobolevsky. Interaction of Proton Beam with Massive Lead Target at Energy up to 100 GeV. Preprint No.78 of the M.V.Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian).
  11. N.Sobolevsky, E.Mustafin. Monte Carlo Calculation of Neutron Yield from Extended Iron and Lead Targets Irradiated by 1 and 3.65 GeV/u Ion Beams. Proc. of the Workshop on Nuclear Data for the Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (TRAMU), 1 5 September 2003, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany.
  12. A.P.Zhukov, A.D.Perekrestenko, S.F.Sidorkin, N.M.Sobolevsky. Neutron Spectra of the Pulsed Neutron Source IN 06 INR RAS. Preprint INR RAS 1140/2005, Moscow, 2005 (in Russian).
  13. D.G.Koshkarev, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Barkhudaryan. Nuclear Reactor Driven by Accelerator. Preprint ITEP 21 05, Moscow, 2005 (in Russian).
  14. V.F.Batyaev, M.A.Butko, K.V.Pavlov, A.Yu.Titarenko, Yu.E.Titarenko, R.S.Tikhonov, S.N.Florya, B.Yu.Sharkov, N.M.Sobolevsky, V.E.Fortov, N.N.Ponomarev-Stepnoi. Analysis of the Main Nuclear Physics Features of Interaction of Proton Beams with Heavy Metallic Targets. Atomnaya Energiya, 104(2008) 242-249 (in Russian).
  15. D.G.Koshkarev, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Barkhudaryan. Using of the electronuclear method for power production. Atomnaya Energiya 105 (2008) 173-177 (in Russian).
  16. Yu.Titarenko, V.Batyaev, A.Titarenko, M.Butko, K.Pavlov, S.Florya, R.Tikhonov, P.Boyko, A.Kovalenko, N.Sobolevsky, V.Anashin, S.Mashnik, W.Gudowski, N.Mokhov, I.Rakhno. Beam Dump and Local Shielding Layout Around the ITEP Radiation Test Facility. Nuclear Technology, 168 (2009) 472-476.
  17. L.N.Latysheva, A.A.Bergman, N.M.Sobolevsky, R.D.Ilic'. Effect of the Size of Experimental Channels of the Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the Moderation Constant. Phys.Atom.Nucl.76(2013)464-468.
  18. A.Krylov, M.Paraipan, N.Sobolevsky, G.Timoshenko, V.Tret'yakov. GEANT4, MCNPX, and SHIELD Code Comparison Concerning Relativistic Heavy Ion Interaction with Matter. Phys.Part.Nucl.Lett. 11 (2014) 847-850.
  19. Yu.E.Titarenko, V.F.Batyaev, K.V.Pavlov et al. Analysis of the Parameters of the Target Unit of a Molten-Salt Subcritical Electronuclear Facility. Atomic Energy 117 (2014) 19-28.

Simulation of experimental physics detectors

  1. K.V.Alexandrov, V.V.Ammosov, A.P.Chubenko et al. The INCA Collaboration: Present status and outlook. Proc. of 27th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 7-15 August 2001, pp. 2171-2174,
  2. K.V.Alexandrov, M.Ambrosio, V.V.Ammosov et al. A new method of ionization-neutron calorimeter (INCA) for direct investigation of high-energy electrons and primary nuclei of cosmic rays up to the "knee" region. Nucl.Instr.Meth. A459 (2001) 135.
  3. L.N.Latysheva, S.V.Serezhnikov. Calculation of the Sensitivity Function of the UDBN 02R Detector. Preprint INR AS SSSR P-0680, Moscow, 1990 (in Russian).
  4. A.A.Bergman, O.N.Goncharenko, A.P.Zhukov, A.D.Perekrestenko, N.M.Sobolevsky. Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutron Transport in the Spectrometer on Moderation Time in Lead. Preprint INR RAS 1089/2002, Moscow, 2002 (in Russian).
  5. A.A.Bergman, O.N.Goncharenko, A.P.Zhukov, A.D.Perekrestenko, N.M.Sobolevsky. Intensity of Neutron Flux in the Spectrometer on Moderation Time in Lead. Monte Carlo Simulation. Preprint INR RAS 1099/2003, Moscow, 2003 (in Russian).
  6. A.P.Chubenko, A.L.Shepetov, V.P.Antonova et al. Multiplicity Spectrum of NM64 Neutron Supermonitor and Hadron Energy Spectrum at Mountain Level. Proc. of The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, July 31- August 7, 2003, p.789.
  7. V.V.Ammosov, A.P.Zhukov, G.T.Zatsepin et al. Increasing of Efficiency of Registration of Neutrons in the Ionization-Neutron Calorimeter. Short Communication in Physics, Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, 2005, No.10, p.40-48 (in Russian).
  8. A.V.Bogomolov, S.N.Kuznetsov, A.E.Lishnevsky et al. A Prototype of a Neutron and g -Ray Spectrometer for Studying Solar Activity at Distances of 0.5 Astronomical Units to 25 Solar Radii. Instruments and Experimental Techniques 48 (2005) 291-302 (in Russian).
  9. V.V.Ammosov, G.I.Britvich, A.P.Chubenko et al. The modern concept of the INCA project elements. Nucl.Phys. (Proc.Suppl.) 151 (2006) 426-429.
  10. S.A.Gavrilov, I.A.Vasilyev, P.I.Reinhardt-Nickoulin, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Feschenko. Protection of Ionization Beam Cross-Section Monitor Electronics from Radiation Damages at INR RAS Linac. VANT, ser. "Nuclear-physics studies", No.3(79), pp. 218 222, Kharkiv, 2012 (in Russian).
  11. L.N.Latysheva, N.M.Sobolevsky, E.A.Koptelov, R.D.Ilic. Mathematical Simulation of the INR RAS SVZ-100 Neutron Spectrometer. Journal of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 9 (2015) 1126-1129.
  12. L.N.Latysheva, S.G.Lebedev, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Feschenko. The stand for irradiation of printed circuit boards at the proton linac INR RAS: particle fluxes, activation and dose rate. Preprint INR RAS 1426/2016, Moscow, 2016 (in Russian).
  13. S.A.Gavrilov, L.N.Latysheva, S.G.Lebedev, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Feschenko. Stand for Studying the Effect of Proton Irradiation on Integrated Circuits: Estimation of Particle Fluxes, Activation, and Dose Rate. Journal of Surface Investigation: X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 1041-1046.
  14. A.S.Rybakov, E.I.Demikhov, E.A.Kostrov, V.S.Litvin, N.M.Sobolevsky, L.N.Latysheva, N.G.Borisenko. Cryogenic setup for MJ class laser targets. Laser and Particle Beams 37 (2019) 25-29.
  15. Chan Ngok Toan, L.G.Beskrovnaya, L.N.Latysheva, N.M.Sobolevsky, G.N.Timoshenko. A dosimeter of neutrons with an energy of 10-4 MeV to 1 GeV based on a heterogeneous moderator. PEPAN Letters 16 (2019) 66-75 (in Russian).
  16. S.Bragin, A.Feschenko, S.Gavrilov, O.Grekhov, Y.Kalinin, Y.Kiselev, L.Latysheva, S.G.Lebedev, A.Melnikov, V.Serov, N.Sobolevskiy, A.Titov, O.Volodkevich, D.Arbuznikov, O.Podgornaya, E.Prokhorov, S.Razinkov, P.Tsedrik and S.Tsibryaev. Development of Proton Irradiation Facility at the INR Linac. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1238 (2019) 012066. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1238/1/012066
  17. A.V.Butenko, E.M.Syresin, S.I.Tyutyunnikov, V.F.Batyaev, T.V.Kulevoy, K.V.Pavlov, V.I.Rogov, A.Yu.Titarenko, Yu.E.Titarenko, A.V.Berlyand, V.A.Berlyand, N.M.Sobolevskiy, D.V.Bobrovskiy, A.I.Chumakov, V.O.Saburov, A.N.Soloviev, M.P.Pesic. Analysis of the Problems of Metrological Support of a Test Stand for Testing Electronic Products for Resistance to High-Energy Heavy Ions. PEPAN Letters 16 (2019) 522-534 (in Russian).
  18. N.M.Sobolevsky, L.N.Latysheva. Models and algorithms for calculating the stopping power dE/dX(E) in the SHIELD transport code. Preprint INR RAS 1443/2019, Moscow, 2019, 18 p (in Russian).
  19. L.Z. Dzhilavyan, A.M. Lapik, L.N. Latysheva, V.G. Nedorezov, V.N. Ponomarev, A.V. Rusakova, N.M. Sobolevsky, G.V. Solodukhov. Registration of Delayed Neutrons from 238U Photofission at Eγmax ≈ 10 MeV in Interval (1-5) ms after Beam Pulses of the Electron Accelerator. Physics of Atomic Nuclei 84 (2021) 1610-1619.

Optimization of pion-producing targets.

  1. M.V.Kazarnovsky, L.N.Latysheva, Yu.V.Petrov, S.V.Serezhnikov, N.M.Sobolevsky. Calculation of Pion and Nucleon Yield from Beryllium Target, Irradiated with Deuterons. Preprint INR AS SSSR P-0498, Moscow, 1986 (in Russian).
  2. M.V.Kazarnovsky, L.N.Latysheva, Yu.V.Petrov, S.V.Serezhnikov, N.M.Sobolevsky. Calculation of Double Differential Distributions of Pions and Nucleons, Leaving Beryllium Target, Irradiated with Deuterons. Preprint INR AS SSSR P-0534, Moscow, 1987 (in Russian).
  3. M.V.Kazarnovsky, L.N.Latysheva, Yu.V.Petrov, S.V.Serezhnikov, N.M.Sobolevsky. Pion and Nucleon Yield Calculation for the Beryllium Target, Irradiated with Deuterons. Muon Catalysed Fusion 3 (1988) 551-556.
  4. M.V.Kazarnovsky, L.N.Latysheva, M.N.Ospanov et al. Using of Deuterons in Electronuclear and Muon Catalyzed Hybrid Reactor. Short Communication in Physics, Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, 1989, No.3, p.36 (in Russian).
  5. L.N.Latysheva, I.A.Pshenichnov, M.Vecchi. Negative Pion Production by Deuterons. Hiperfine Interactions 101/102 (1996) 669-676.
  6. G.N.Vyalov, N.M.Sobolevsky. Optimization of the Target Thickness in the Experiment MADIS on Study of Mesoatoms at a Proton Beam. Preprint INR RAS 1044/2000, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian).
  7. N.M.Sobolevsky. Yield of p - from Light Extended Targets under Deuterium and a - Particle Irradiation. Preprint INR RAS 1047/2000, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian).

Interaction of therapeutic beams of protons and light ions with tissue like media.

  1. I.Gudowska, P.Andreo, N. Sobolevsky. Secondary particle production in tissue-like and shielding materials for light and heavy ions calculated with the Monte-Carlo code SHIELD-HIT. J. Radiat. Res. 43 (2002) S93-S97.
  2. I.Gudowska, N.Sobolevsky, P.Andreo, Dz.Belkic, A.Brahme. Ion Beam Transport in Tissue-Like Media Using the Monte Carlo Code SHIELD-HIT. Phys.Med.Biol. 49 (2004) 1933-1958.
  3. J.Kempe, I.Gudowska, N.Sobolevsky, A.Brahme. Fluence, energy fluence and absorbed dose in a therapeutic 7Li ion beam. Radiotherapy & Oncology 76, Suppl.2 (2005) S62.
  4. I.Gudowska, N.Sobolevsky. Simulation of secondary particle production and absorbed dose to tissue in light ion beams. The ICRS-10 Proceedings, 10-14 May 2004, Madeira, Portugal. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 116 (2005) 301-306.
  5. I.Gudowska, J.Kempe, N.Sobolevsky. Low- and High LET Dose Components in Carbon Beam. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 122 (2006) 483-484.
  6. O.Geithner, P.Andreo, N.Sobolevsky, G.Hartmann, O.Jaekel. Calculation of Stopping Power Ratios for Carbon Ion Dosimetry. Phys.Med.Biol. 51 (2006) 2279-2292.
  7. I.Gudowska, M.Kopec, N.Sobolevsky. Neutron Production in Tissue-Like Media and Shielding Materials Irradiated with High-Energy Ion Beams. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 126 (2007) 652-256.
  8. N.Sobolevsky. Monte Carlo simulation in hadron therapy: interaction of ion beam with biological tissue. Invited Talk at the NUFRA2007 International Conference, Kemer, Turkey, September 25-30, 2007.
  9. M.Hollmark, I.Gudowska, Dz.Belkic, A.Brahme, N.Sobolevsky. An Analytical Model for Light Ion Pencil Beam Dose Distributions: Multiple Scattering of Primary and Secondary Ions. Phys.Med.Biol. 53 (2008) 3477-3491.
  10. K.Henkner, N.Bassler, N.Sobolevsky, O.Jaekel. Monte Carlo Simulations on the water-to-air stopping power ratio for carbon ion dosimetry. Medical Physics 36 (2009) 1230-1235.
  11. K.Henkner, N.Sobolevsky, H.Paganetti, O.Jaekel. Test of the nuclear interaction model in SHIELD-HIT and a comparison to energy distributions from GEANT4. Phys. Med. Biol. 54 (2009) N509-N517.
  12. A.Luehr, D.C.Hansen, O.Jaekel, N.Sobolevsky, N.Bassler. Analytical expressions for water-to-air stopping-power ratios relevant for accurate dosimetry in particle therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 2515-2533.
  13. A.Luehr, D.Hansen, N.Sobolevsky, H.Palmans, S.Rossomme, N.Bassler. Fluence Correction Factors and Stopping Power Ratios for Clinical Ion Beams. Acta Oncologica 50 (2011) 797-805.
  14. D.Hansen, A.Luehr, R.Herrmann, N.Sobolevsky, N.Bassler. Recent Improvements in the SHIELD-HIT Code. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 88 (2012) 195-199
  15. M.Hultquist, M.Lazzeroni, A.Botvina, I.Gudowska, N.Sobolevsky, A.Brahme. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross sections and fragment yields in carbon beams using the SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo code. Comparison with experiments. Phys.Med.Biol. 57 (2012) 4369-4385.
  16. D.Hansen, A.Luehr, N.Sobolevsky, N.Bassler. Optimizing SHIELD-HIT for carbon ion treatment. Phys.Med.Biol. 57(2012)2393-2409.
  17. A.Luehr, D.Hansen, R.Teiwes, N.Sobolevsky, O.Jaekel, N.Bassler. The impact of modeling nuclear fragmentation on delivered dose and radiobiology in ion therapy. Phys.Med.Biol. 57 (2012) 5169-5185.
  18. A.Luehr, M.Priegnitz, F.Fiedler, W.Enghardt, N.Sobolevsky, N.Bassler. Dependence of simulated positron emitter yields in ion beam cancer therapy on modeling nuclear fragmentation. Appl.Radiat.Isot. 83B(2014)165-170.
  19. V.T.Taasti, H.Knudsen, M.H.Holzscheiter, N.Sobolevsky, B.Thomsen, N.Bassler. Antiproton annihilation physics in the Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A. Nucl.Instr.Meth. B347 (2015) 65-71.
  20. The Agreement of Co-Ownership the SHIELD-HIT12A code between INR RAS and the Aarhus University, Denmark, has been signed on March 16, 2017. The SHIELD-HIT12A project is presented on the website
  21. J.W.Norbury, G.Battistoni, J.Besuglow, L.Bocchini, D.Boscolo, A.Botvina, M.Clowdsley, Wet, M.Durante, M.Giraudo, T.Haberer, L.Heilbronn, F.Horst, M.Kramer, C.La Tessa, F.Luoni, A.Mairani, S.Muraro, R.B.Norman, V.Patera, G.Santin, C.Schuy, L.Sihver, T.C.Slaba1, N.Sobolevsky, A.Topi, U.Weber, C.M.Werneth, C.Zeitlin. Are Further Cross-Sectional Measurements Necessary for Space Radiation Protection or Ion Therapy Applications? Helium Projectiles. Review article. Frontiers in Physics,

Simulation of interaction of heavy ion beam with elements of accelerator systems.

  1. E.Mustafin, G.Moritz, G.Walter, L.Latycheva, N.Sobolevskiy. Radiation Damage to the Elements of the Nuclotron-Type Dipole of SIS100. Proceedings of EPAC 2004, Lucerne, Switzerland, 5-9 July 2004, p. 1408.
  2. E.Mustafin, I.Hofmann, D.Schardt et al. Precision Measurements of Energy Deposition of U Ions in Cu and Stainless Steel Targets at Energies of 500 MeV/u and 950 MeV/u. 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC05), May 16-20, 2005, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Proceedings, p. 2318.
  3. E.Mustafin, J.Kaugerts, G.Moritz, G.Walter, L.Latysheva, N.Sobolevskiy. Radiation Damage of the Elementsof the SIS300 Dipoles. 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC05), May 16-20, 2005, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Proceedings, p. 3943.
  4. E.Mustafin, L.Latycheva. Modeling of Energy Deposition and Fragment Spectra in the Construction Elements of the SIS300 Dipole magnet Dipole Irradiated by 37 GeV/u Uranium Ions. Preprint GSI, GSI-ACC-Note-2005-04-001, Darmstadt, 2005.
  5. A.Fertman, E.Mustafin, R.Hinca et al. First results of an experimental study of the residual activity induced by high-energy uranium ions in steel and copper. NIM B260(2007)579-591.
  6. A.A.Golubev, A.V.Kantsyrev, V.E.Luckjashin et al.Measurement of the Energy Deposition Profile for 238U Ions with Specific Energy 500 and 950 MeV/u in Stainless Steel and Copper Targets. NIM B263(2007)339-344.
  7. N.Sobolevsky, E.Mustafin. Activation and neutron yield from stainless vacuum chamber irradiated by ions of mass number from proton 1H to Uranium 238U with the kinetic energy 1 GeV/u. Preprint GSI-Acc-Note-2007-01-02, Darmstadt, 2007.
  8. L.Latysheva, N.Sobolevsky, E.Mustafin, P.Hulsmann. Simulation of radiation damage to the RF-cavity ring cores of the SIS18 and SIS100 synchrotrons. Preprint GSI-Acc-Note-2007-01-03, Darmstadt, 2007.
  9. I.Strasik, E.Mustafin, A.Fertman et al. Experimental Study of the Residual Activity Induced by 950 MeV/u Uranium Ions in Stainless Steel and Copper. Nucl.Instr.Meth. B266(2008)3443-3452.
  10. L.Beskrovnaia, B.Florko, M.Paraipan, N.Sobolevsky, G.Timoshenko. Verification of Monte Carlo Transport Codes FLUKA, GEANT4 and SHIELD for Radiation Protection Purposes at Relativistic Heavy Ion Accelerators. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B266 (2008) 4058-4060.
  11. V.Chetvertkova, E.Mustafin, I.Strasik, L.Latysheva, N.Sobolevskiy. Verification of Monte Carlo Transport Codes FLUKA, MARS and SHIELD-A. Talk at the 10th Meeting on Shielding Aspect of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities (SATIF-10), 2-4 June 2010, CERN.
  12. I.Strasik, E.Mustafin, N.Sobolevsky, M.Pavlovic, V.Chetvertkova. Activation and "Hands on" Maintenance Criteria for Heavy-Ion Accelerators. Talk at the 10th Meeting on Shielding Aspect of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities (SATIF-10), 2-4 June 2010, CERN.
  13. L.Beskrovnaia, L.Latysheva, M.Paraipan, N.Sobolevsky, G.Timoshenko. Simulation of Residual Activity in Steel and Copper Targets Induced by 950 MeV/Nucleon Uranium Ions. Phys. Part. Nuc. Lett. 8 (2011) 364-367.
  14. V.Chetvertkova, I.Strasik, A.Belousov, H.Iwase, N.Mokhov, E.Mustafin, L.Latysheva, M.Pavlovic, U.Ratzinger, N.Sobolevsky. Activation of aluminum by argon: Experimental study and simulations. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B269 (2011) 1336-1340.

Action of the Galactic Cosmic Rays upon Space vehicles and natural objects.

  1. V.S.Barashenkov, N.M.Sobolevsky, V.D.Toneev. Accumulation of Cosmogenic Isotopes in Iron Meteorites. Preprint JINR R2-6225, Dubna, 1972; Geokhimiya No.11 (1972) 1325 (in Russian).
  2. A.V.Dementyev, R.A.Nymmik, N.M.Sobolevsky. Secondary Protons and Neutrons Generated by Galactic and Solar Cosmic Ray Particles behind 1-100 g/cm2 Aluminium Shielding. Adv. Space Res. 21 (1998) 1793.
  3. W.Spjeldvik, G.I.Pugacheva, I.M.Martin, A.A.Gusev, N.M. Sobolevsky. Sources of inner Radiation Zone Energetic Helium Ions: cross-field transport versus in-situ nuclear reactions. Adv. Space Res. 21 (1998) 1675.
  4. W.N.Spjeldvik, G.I.Pugacheva, A.A.Gusev, I.M.Martin, and N.M.Sobolevsky. Hydrogen and helium isotope inner radiation belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 16 (1998) 931.
  5. M.I.Panasyuk et al. Background Fluxes of Neutrons in Near-Earth Space: Experimental Results of SINP. Preprint 2000-9/613, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow, 2000.
  6. N.V.Kuznetsov, R.A.Nymmik, N.M.Sobolevsky. Estimates of radiation effect for a spacecraft on the Earth-Mars-Earth route. Adv.Space Res. 30(2002)985.
  7. A.V.Bogomolov, A.V.Dementyev, M.I.Kudryavtsev et al. Fluxes and Energy Spectra of Secondary Neutrons with Energies > 20 MeV as Measured by the MIR Orbital Station, the SALYUT 7 - KOSMOS 1686 Orbital Complex and the KORONAS I Satellite: Comparison of Experimental Data and Model Calculations. Space Research 38 (2002) 31-36 (in Russian).
  8. T.Ersmark, P.Carlson, E.Daly et al. Status of the DESIRE Project: Geant4 Physics Validation Studies and First Results from Columbus/ISS Radiation Simulations. IEEE Transactions in Nuclear Science 51 (2004) 1378-1384.
  9. I.Getselev, S.Ryumin, N.Sobolevsky et al. Absorbed dose of secondary neutrons from galactic cosmic rays inside the international space station. Advances in Space Research 34 (2004) 1429-1432.
  10. S.P.Ryumin, N.M.Sobolevsky, M.V.Ufimtsev. Secondary Neutrons of Galactic Cosmic Ray Interactions in the Matter of Earth Satellites and Orbital Stations at Altitudes 400 500 km. Preprint INR RAS 1124/2004, Moscow, 2004 (in Russian/English).
  11. K. M. Pichkhadze, M. I. Panasyuk, N. V. Kuznetsov et al. A Method for Calculating Absorbed Doses onboard Spacecraft for Interplanetary Missions. Space Research 43 (2005) 222-225 (in Russian).
  12. L.Heilbronn, Y.Iwata, H.Iwase et al. Secondary neutron-production cross sections from heavy-ion interactions in composite targets. Phys. Rev. C74 (2006) 024603.
  13. I.Gudowska, N.Sobolevsky. Calculations of Particle and Heavy Ion Interactions with Space Shielding Materials using the SHIELD-HIT Transport Code. Radiation Measurements, 41 (2006) 1091-1096.
  14. S.P.Ryumin, N.M.Sobolevsky, M.V.Ufimtsev. Variations of the Flux and the Energy Spectrum of Neutrons Born in the Galactic Cosmic Ray Proton Interactions with the Matter of Earth's Satellites and Orbital Stations. Radiation Measurements 43 (2008) 47-55.
  15. A.N.Denisov, N.V.Kuznetsov, R.A.Nymmik, M.I.Panasyuk, N. M. Sobolevskii. On the Problem of Lunar Radiation Environment. Cosmic Research 48 (2010) 510-517.
  16. A.N.Denisov, N.V.Kuznetsov, R.A.Nymmik, M.I.Panasyuk, N.M.Sobolevsky. Assessment of the Radiation Environment on the Moon. Acta Astronautica 68 (2011) 1440-1447.
  17. N.V.Kuznetsov, R.A.Nymmik, M.I.Panasyuk, A.N.Denisov, and N.M.Sobolevsky. Estimation of Radiation Risk for Astronauts on the Moon. Cosmic Research 50 (2012) 216-220.
  18. J.W.Norbury, T.C.Slaba, N.Sobolevsky, B.Reddell. Comparing HZETRN, SHIELD, FLUKA and GEANT transport codes. Life Sciences in Space Research 14 (2017) 64-73.
  19. J.W.Norbury, N.Sobolevsky, C.M.Werneth. SHIELD and HZETRN Comparisons of Pion Production Cross Sections. Nucl.Instr.Meth. B418 (2018) 13-17.
  20. N.M.Sobolevsky, L.N.Latysheva, N.V.Kuznetsov. Simulation of particle fluxes and absorbed dose behind a shielding irradiated by GCR using the SHIELD transport code (in Russian). International Conference "Modern Problems of Space Radiobiology and Astrobiology", October 17-19, 2018, Dubna, Russia.
  21. N.V.Kuznetsov, L.N.Latysheva, N.M.Sobolevsky. Simulation of particle fluxes and absorbed dose behind a shielding irradiated by GCR using the SHIELD transport code. Radiation Environment and Risk Analysis At and Near the Lunar Surface. Face-to-face Meeting #6, February 18-19, 2019, Moscow.
  22. J.W.Norbury, T.C.Slaba, S.Aghara, F.F.Badavi, S.R.Blattnig, M.S.Clowdsley, L.H.Heilbronn, K.Lee, K.M.Maung, C.J.Mertens, J.Miller, R.B.Norman, C.A.Sandridge, R.Singleterry, N.Sobolevsky, J.L.Spangler, L.W.Townsend, C.M.Werneth, K.Whitman, J.W.Wilson, Sh.X.Xu, C.Zeitlin. Advances in Space Radiation Physics and Transport at NASA. Review article. Life Sciences in Space Research 22 (2019) 98-124.
  23. J.W.Norbury, L.Latysheva, N.Sobolevsky. Light ion double-differential cross section parameterization and results from the SHIELD transport code. Nucl. Instr. Meth. A947 (2019) 162576.
  24. J.W.Norbury, G.Battistoni, J.Besuglow, L.Bocchini, D.Boscolo, A.Botvina, M.Clowdsley, Wet, M.Durante, M.Giraudo, T.Haberer, L.Heilbronn, F.Horst, M.Kramer, C.La Tessa, F.Luoni, A.Mairani, S.Muraro, R.B.Norman, V.Patera, G.Santin, C.Schuy, L.Sihver, T.C.Slaba1, N.Sobolevsky, A.Topi, U.Weber, C.M.Werneth, C.Zeitlin. Are Further Cross-Sectional Measurements Necessary for Space Radiation Protection or Ion Therapy Applications? Helium Projectiles. Review article. Frontiers in Physics,
  25. N.M. Sobolevsky, L.N. Latysheva, N.V. Kuznetsov, M.I. Panasyuk, M.V. Podzolko. Modeling Particle Fluxes and Absorbed Dose for Protection from Cosmic Rays Using the SHIELD Transport Code. Cosmic Research 59 (2021) 259-267. DOI: 10.1134/S0010952521030096

Background conditions in deep underground low-background experiments.

  1. L.G.Dedenko, A.V.Dementyev, A.A.Kirillov et al. Generation of Neutrons and Radioactive Nuclides by Hadronic Cascades in Water. Physics of Atomic Nuclei 59 (1996) 470-474 (translated from Yadernaya Fizika).
  2. A.Dementyev, V.Gurentsov, O.Ryazhskaya, N.Sobolevsky. Production and Transport of Hadrons Generated in Nuclear Cascades Initiated by Muons in the Rock (Exclusive Approach). Preprint INFN/AE-97/50, 22 Settembre 1997, Laboratori Nazionale del Gran Sasso.
  3. A.Dementyev, V.Gurentsov, O.Ryazhskaya, N.Sobolevsky. Production and Transport of Hadrons Generated in Nuclear Cascades Initiated by Muons in the Rock (Exclusive Approach). Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 70 (1999) 486.
  4. I.Barabanov, S.Belogurov, L.Bezrukov, A.Denisov, V.Kornoukhov, N.Sobolevsky. Cosmogenic activation of Germanium and its reduction for low background experiments. Nucl.Instr.Meth. B251 (2006) 115 120.
  5. A.N.Shubin, A.N.Gilev, D.B.Kononov et al. New Requirements to Enriched Isotopes for Experiments on Studying of the Neutrino Less Double Decay (the Experiment GERDA). Atomnaya Energiya 101 (2006) 135-140 (in Russian).
  6. K.V.Manukovsky, O.G.Ryazhskaya, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Yudin. Neutron Production by Cosmic-Ray Muons in Various Materials. Physics of Atomic Nuclei 79 (2016) 464-473.

Primary radiation damage of materials under irradiation by a proton beam.
Dynamical stage of the cascade of atomic displacements.

  1. S.G.Lebedev, .N.Smirnova, N.M.Sobolevsky, Yu.Ya.Stavissky. RADDAM Code for Simulation of Radiation Damage by High Energy Nucleons. Preprint INR RAS 0896/95, Moscow, 1995.
  2. E.A.Koptelov, S.G.Lebedev, O.N.Smirnova et al. Prospect for Study of Radiation Damage at RADEX-15, Radiation Experiment Facility, Based on the Beam Stop of Moscow Meson Factory. J.Nucl.Materials 233-237 (1996) 1552.
  3. E.A.Koptelov, S.G.Lebedev, V.A.Matveev et al. The RADEX facility as a tool for studies of radiation damage under proton and spallation neutron irradiation. Proc. of the 15-th Meeting of International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources ICANS-XV, November 6-9, 2000, Tsukuba, Japan, p. 1222.
  4. E.A.Koptelov, S.G.Lebedev, V.A.Matveev et al. Computer and experimental modeling of target performance in particle beams and fusion and fission environment. Nucl.Instr.Meth. A480 (2002) 137.
  5. E.A.Koptelov, S.G.Lebedev, N.M.Sobolevsky et al. Radiation Damage Parameters for Modelling of FRM Irradiation Conditions at the RADEX facility of INR RAS. J.Nucl.Materials 307-311 (2002) 1042-1046.
  6. I.M.Dremin, O.V.Ivanov, V.A.Nechitailo, N.M.Sobolevsky, A.V.Subbotin, V.P.Shevelko. Cascades of Atomic Displacement in Solids. The Dynamical Stage. ZhETP 125 (2004) 362-376 (in Russian).

Contact person: Prof. Nikolai Sobolevsky, e-mail:, . (495)850 42 61
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